Harsh Climate: The extremities of the tundra biome experience extremely cold temperatures, with average winter temperatures dropping well below freezing.
Permafrost: The ground in the tundra is characterized by permafrost, a permanently frozen layer that restricts the growth of plant roots.
Short Growing Season: The tundra has a brief summer growing season, typically lasting only a few months, due to the cold climate.
Low Biodiversity: The tundra biome has limited species diversity, with vegetation mainly consisting of hardy grasses, mosses, lichens, and dwarf shrubs.
Adapted Wildlife: Animals in the tundra, such as Arctic foxes, polar bears, and caribou, have special adaptations to survive the extreme conditions, including thick fur and layers of fat.
Fragile Ecosystem: The tundra biome is a fragile ecosystem that can be easily disrupted, and recovery from disturbances like oil spills can take decades or even centuries.
Important Carbon Sink: Tundra regions store vast amounts of carbon in their frozen soils, making them crucial for regulating global climate patterns and carbon balance.